Vitamins are present in a small amount in daily meals and are a vital component of our diet. Vitamins are needed in a small amount but they are very necessary to maintain our body functions. Deficiency of vitamins can lead many health problems.
We can classify the vitamins mainly into 2 types
1) water soluble vitamins.
2) fat soluble vitamins.
Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin B complex ( this vitamin is actually present in group)
Vitamin B1 or thiamine
Vitamin B2 or riboflavin
Vitamin B3 or niacin
Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine
Para amino benzoic acid
Vitamin B12 or cynocobalamin
2) vitamin C or ascorbic acid
3) vitamin p or bioflavonoids
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin A or retinol
Vitamin D or cholecalciferol
Vitamin E or Tocopherol
Functions of water soluble vitamins
1) vitamin c
We have known this ascorbic acid is found in 2 forms
This is found in inactive form
This is an active form of vitamin c and there are many vital functions of vitamin c.
Vitamin C is reacting like an antioxidant and it helps to build up hemoglobin and also helps to regulate blood clotting. This is called antiinfective vitamin and helps to prevent infection. It helps to detoxify the body. It increases the absorption of iron from guts in animal and human beings and also converts ferric (Fe+++) iron into (Fe++) ferrous iron and helps to synthesize epinephrine hormone and anti-infective steroids secrets from the Adrenal gland.
2) vitamin B complex
This vitamin is called vitamin B complex because they are found together in nature and often seen that deficiency of any vitamin B seems deficiency of others. Vitamin B2 helps to synthesize coenzyme. Thiamine helps in the metabolism of carbs and also helps to synthesize fat from carbs and protein. They regulate to maintain the functions of skin and guts.
Folic acid is necessary for the maturity of RBCs. Pantothenic acid also helps in the metabolism of carbs and fats and needed to synthesize of cholesterol and many types of steroids. Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin helps to metabolize nucleic acid and necessary for the maturity of RBCs.
Choline helps to regulate the growth in living beings. Inositol helps to grow the fibroblasts and also removes the extra fat from the liver.
3) Vitamin P or bioflavonoids
Word bioflavonoid is used for permeability and this is found in Rustin, eriodictin, citron, and hesperidin. The functions of vitamin P are help y decrease the bleeding in scurvy disease. This is an antioxidant too. It cures bleeding in blood capillaries.
Functions of fat-soluble vitamins
This is also called antiinfective vitamin. This helps to regulate eyesight and it helps to grow the soft tissues and teeth enamel. It plays an important role in protein synthesis.
Vitamin D helps to absorb calcium and phosphorus from guts. Vitamin D helps to synthesize a hormone which is produced by kidney and liver, that helps in growth and mineralization of teeth and bones.
This is also an antioxidant and helps to cure our cells from free radicals and peroxides. It helps to inhibit the liver from the poisonous effect of carbon tetrachloride.
This is an antihemorrhagic and may inhibit the blood clotting.
We can occur this vitamin from both animal and plant sources. Vitamin A which occurs from the animal source is the complete form of vitamin A and gets completely absorbed but from plant sources, we can get in form of carotin and after then it converts into vitamin A.
Animal liver, fish liver oil, meat these are best sources of vitamin A and butter, mango (ripe) , papaya, green leafy vegetables, eggs, milk powder, orange, pumpkin, tomatoes are the good sources of vitamin A.
We can obtain this vitamin from our daily diet which should be enriched by vitamin D and also can get from sunlight. Liver oil, milk powder and fish. Fish liver oil is the best source of vitamin D
Egg yolk, butter, meat, dry nuts, vegetable oil are the sources of vitamin E but oil of germinated wheat and other cereals are the best sources of vitamin E.
50 percent of this vitamin is made by the bacteria of our guts. Fruits, cereals, milk products have less amount of vitamin K . Green leafy vegetables especially spinach, salad leaves, cabbage are the good sources of this vitamin.
This is found in gooseberry, mausambi, orange and other citrus fruits. Sprouts are the rich sources of vitamin c. Tomato, green chilies, green veggies also have vitamin C and found in less amount from meat, eggs and milk.
Vitamin B complex
Yeast and sprouted wheat are the rich sources of vitamin B complex. Whole grains, nuts, beans also have this vitamin.
B2 mainly found in pulses and lean meat. yeast, milk, eggs, green leafy vegetables, cheese and liver and absent in butter. This is an exception vitamin of this group which is found in milk in adequate amount.
This is synthesized by tryptophane amino acid in the body. Yeast, lean meat, whole grain, legumes are the good source of niacin.
Yeast, meat, whole grains, wheat sprout, eggs, milk are the good source of B6.
Yeast, kidney, spinach, green leafy vegetables are the good source of folic acid. This is also found in legumes and whole grains.
Eggs, yeast, whole grains, wheat sprout, legumes are the rich sources of this.
Liver and kidney are the rich sources of vitamin B12 and this is also found in milk, meat, eggs and fish.
Liver, kidney, egg yolk, whole grains.
Egg yolk, wheat germ, legumes, liver, nuts, whole grains. Meats are the rich source of choline.
Liver, yeast, oilseeds, nuts, whole grains and legumes are the rich sources of this vitamin.
Orange, lemon is the good source of vitamin P. This is found in fruits cover in adequate amount.
Deficiency of vitamin A can be caused night blindness, xerosis cornia , xerosis conjunctiva keratomalacia and bitot spots. Above are eyesight problems and seem when we take more than less amount of suggested vitamin A. Definitely of vitamin A can be shown the effect in mucous membrane, skin and body growth too.
Rickets is in children and osteomalacia in adults is the symptoms of this. These are the bone disease. Dental decay also in it.
Infertility, increase the excretion of creatine in urine, breakage of RBCs.
It affects the process of clotting and sometimes internal bleeding can be shown and that is called hypoprothrombinaemia
The main disorder which is occurred by the deficiency of vitamin c is scurvy. When it finds in infants it calls infantile survey. Weakness, anemia, gum swelling and weak healing. swelling in joints are the symptoms of scurvy.
Vitamin B complex
Infantile Beri Beri, depression oedema dry Beri Beri (found in adults) wet Beri Beri. in alcoholic
There is seems alcoholic Beri Beri. Reduction in starving or Hunger, weak muscles, problem in movement, increase heartbeat.
Palegra or 3D disease in deficiency of niacin.
kidney stones, hair loss megaloblastic anemia ( immature RBCs).
Pernicious anemia, burning feet syndrome. Megaloblastic anemia can be also found in this.
Internal bleeding, fatigueness, depression, pain in feet and arms.