Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. they are hydrates of carbon so they called carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are a big source of energy, in our food and we take 70-80% of calories from carbohydrate in our daily diet. Carbohydrates mainly provide energy to our body. although mostly food has a composition of Carbohydrates but some food like cane sugar whole milk, wite sugar are largely composed of Carbohydrates. Starch is a complex Carbohydrates which is found in the whole grain like rice and potato and made of glucose units. Carbohydrates are completely absorbed in our body and give quick energy.
There are mainly three types of carbohydrates:
a) Monosaccharides: Further divided into three kinds i) Glucose ii) Fructose iii) Galactose.
b) Disaccharides: Further dived into three kinds i) Sucrose ii) Maltose iii) Lactose.
c) Polysaccharides: Also divided into three kinds i) Starch ii) Cellulose iii) Glycogen
The function of Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates are quick energy giving the compound. 1 gm Carbohydrates gives us 4 Kcal. It makes our body energies. It stores as glycogen in our body and gives energy during fasting or weakness. It helps to grow good bacteria which produce Vitamin B complex in our intestine. Some fiber carbohydrates like cellulose, pectin have to movement of our intestine. They absorb water and make easy and comfort to excretion of the bowl. Carbohydrates have to increase the taste of food, they have to save protein from our food to build up our cells, tissue and bones which are primary functions of protein and that is called protein sparing action. Carbohydrates like lactose which is called milk sugar too do help to absorb calcium. Carbohydrates support to maintain the function of heart properly. Glucose, a king of Carbohydrates helps to activate the cell of our brain. Our body cells or tissues are also taking nutrition from glucose. Long-term deficiency of glucose can be caused porencephaly in the brain. Less intake or deficiency of carbohydrates can generate ketosis. This is when we use less carbohydrate then our body use the stored fat from our body for energy and it results to produce an acid that is called ketosis and that is a harmful condition and often seen in diabetic patient who takes less than 100 gm of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are useful to make essential and non-essential amino acids in our body. Amino acids are the unit of protein and very necessary for development.
Sources of carbohydrates:
Basically, carbohydrates are found in everything which can be eaten, but plant and animal fats are the exceptions to this. Mainly carbs are found in the form of sugar and starch in our daily diets. All fruits like bananas, mango and sugarcane this is found in form of sugar and in all cereals and grains like wheat and rice they are found in form of starch. Eggs dairy products and meat are less in carbohydrates. In raw fruits and green leafy vegetables, they are found in form of fiber such as pectin and cellulose which is beneficial for our guts.
Carbohydrates are the main energy giving a compound in our diet, deficiency of carbohydrates is increasing the consumption of protein which is mainly used for bodybuilding function, so protein has to work for giving energy inspite bodybuilding function and the result is protein-energy malnutrition seems in the body. In children below 2 years this is called marasmus deficiency of carbohydrate is caused dry mouth and dry skin too. It affects heart function and our brain activity. Autonomic nervous system, migraine and hypoglycemia, are the result of it. This is caused by anemia and muscle weakness. Lack of concentration increasing stress and difficulty in swallowing. Weak eyesight due to lack of vitamin A, loose and shineless skin.
Excessive intake of carbohydrates: There are many side effects of excessive intake of carbohydrates. A large number of carbohydrates accumulate in our body in form of fats. Extra intake of carbs is increasing the risk of juvenile diabetes in youngers and other health problems such as heart, liver problems, diabetes, obesity and fatigueness in adults.